Superior Essay Writers | Physical, cognitive, and social activities.

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August 10, 2019
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August 10, 2019

Superior Essay Writers | Physical, cognitive, and social activities.

  1. Using your own words, summarise the section below in approximately 2-3 sentences

*Note: AD = Alzheimer Disease
The finding that total daily physical activity is associated with incident AD as well as with the level and rate of change in cognitive function provides support for efforts to encourage physical activity even in very old individuals. In further analyses, this association remained significant after adjusting for a wide range of late-life activities including physical, cognitive, and social activities. Thus, not only exercise but also higher levels of non-exercise activity are associated with cognition in old age. This finding has important implications not only for observational studies but also for the design of physical activity intervention studies and cognition in old age. Older individuals, for whom participation in formal exercise may be constrained because of underlying health problems, may nonetheless benefit from a more active lifestyle through increases in the full spectrum of routine activities which are included under the rubric of non-exercise physical activity. Further, studies are needed to delineate the determinants of exercise and non-exercise physical activity in older individuals as well as their relative contributions to cognition in old age…. There are limitations to this study. Inferences regarding causality must be drawn with caution from observational studies. However, it is important to note that if the benefits of physical activity are small and cumulative over many years, they may be beyond resolution by a randomized clinical trial. Thus, the field may be forced to draw inferences regarding this association from well- designed epidemiologic studies. The complementary analyses in the current study provide important data suggesting that physical activity may be protective of and forestall the development of AD. The percentage of female participants was high and this was a volunteer cohort, and thus may not be representative of the general population of older adults. Further, the actigraphs used in this study do not differentiate the types of activities that were performed, and removal of the device cannot always be distinguished from periods of no activity. The main strength of this study is that we obtained objective measures of total daily physical activity from a relatively large number of well characterized older persons who may be more representative of the cognitive and physical function spectrum observed in the community setting. In addition, our analyses adjusted for a wide range of late-life activities and potential confounders including robust measurements of both cognition and motor function, evaluated as part of a uniform clinical evaluation.

  1. Using your own words, paraphrase the text provided below,

The number of Americans older than 65 years will double to about 80 million by 2030, with the most rapid growth in those 80 years or older. Thus, whether physical activity, a modifiable risk factor, is associated with cognitive decline and AD has important public health consequences. Some but not all prior observational studies have reported an association between physical activity and cognition in old age.

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