Objectives and Outline
Providing individuals and groups with efficient guidance through course material that works synergistically with their learning style to reinforce understanding of current lesson plans is crucial. When developing learning objectives and course outline one needs to be mindful of visual learners, kinesthetic learners, and auditory learners. In this case the class topic is self-efficacy in hand-off reporting for newly graduated nurses and the students have already been evaluated and there are three visual leaners, four kinesthetic learners, and three auditory learners. Incorporating aspects of each learning style into lesson plans will enhance the ability for the instructor to reach more students, increasing the number of students successfully completing the course and retaining the information. The objectives stated below and information provide throughout this course will be reviewed and presented utilizing aspects of visual, kinesthetic, and auditory learning styles. According to Sinclair & Ferguson (2009) lecture and group demonstration of nursing skills also foster passive learning of important clinical information and the associated critical thinking so vital when providing patient care. Presenting information accommodating multiple learning styles will be beneficial to the class as a whole relaying information efficiently to multiple learners.
1). Identifying the importance of developing self-efficacy in hand-off reporting
2.) Examine strategies that can enhance self-efficacy in hand-off reporting.
3. Explore the benefits of self-efficacy in hand-off reporting.
4.) Discuss communication barriers as they relate to self-efficacy in hand off reporting.
Four Hour Self Efficacy in Hand off Course Design
|Learning Objectives||Activities/Time||Rationale||Formative Assessment||Summative Assessment|
|Learner will identify base line knowledge gaps||10 minute Self Efficacy questionnaire Pre-test||To motivate Learner and build on previous knowledge||Assess learning needs using Hand-off Self Efficacy tool|
|Learner will verbalize the main points of presentation and share with class.||30 minute Power point presentation with audio podcast.
|The content of the material is essential for student to acquire skill.||Assess interaction with material through de-briefing questions.|
|Learner will play in-coming Nurse /outgoing Nurse in pairs covering the main ideas.||Role playing for 10 minutes each pair of students in hand –off scenarios||Encourage students to practice learning in a safe environment||Assess student ability to analyze think and synthesize information|
|Create a cheat sheet for hand-offs
Demonstrate hand-off procedures using cheat sheet
|End of class activity 30 minutes
2 hour precepted clinical experience of hand off at bedside
|Give students opportunity to build on knowledge and utilize higher or executive function
Students will internalize learning by utilizing critical and clinical thinking skills.
|Assess use of analytic and synthesis skills in a real life scenario||Assess cheat sheets for completeness, analysis and clinical thinking
Administer self-efficacy scale post-test
Assign Grades based on all components of learning objectives
Learning Activities and Rational
The use of effective communication is a core element in the health care arena. It allows effective patient care to be rendered by those who are ultimately serving as caregivers for a patient’s duration in the hospital setting. The lack of good effective communication has often times been linked to the healthcare provider not being able to meet the needs of the patient, the underlying culprit in the occurrence of adverse events, medical errors and diminished professional interaction amongst coworkers( Norgaard, Ammentrop, Kyvik, Kofoed, 2012). In a four hour learning session geared for the new nurse on the importance of self efficacy in hand off, the session would be geared to encompass the learning styles of the visual learner, auditory learner and the tactile learner. The learning session would initially start with a short introductory lecture that emphasizes the importance of communication in the workplace and how the lack of communication can result in adverse events occurring and poor patient care being rendered. A power point presentation with audio prompts and scenarios would be introduced with intervals breaks that would allow for the class to openly discuss the scenarios as a group. This would elicit the thought patterns and the ideas of the nurses in the classroom on the subject of self efficacy and hand offs. After the completion of the power point presentation, the nurses would be allowed to breakout into pairs and given scenarios whereby different situations would be introduced and the nurses would be asked to role play and exchange dialog as to how the situation should be handled to allow for effective communication exchange in hand off situations. The scenarios could range from reporting from given situations such as receiving the patient from the emergency room, the operating room, and transport to a critical care setting, floor to floor transfer, shift change, reporting to providers and break relief. This would give the new nurse multiple scenarios in which hand off would be exchange and allow for some level of confidence to be gained. After the scenarios have been completed, the group would be allowed to openly discuss their views on the scenarios and how negative hand off can impact care that is being rendered. The completion of the class would entail a testing module on self efficacy and hand off reporting.
Learning Activities and Assessment
Bandura (2006, p.309) States that self -efficacy is the perceived judgment of an individual of their capability to perform certain tasks. Prive (2012) states that the ability to communicate effectively is one of the hallmarks of Leadership. In order to lead as a new graduate Nurse communication skills are key to patient safety. Bandura argued that self -efficacy scales are not predictive of success in carrying out the task in question (i.e. in this case hand-off communication). However, they are useful in measuring the levels of motivation of the individuals to persist in face of obstacles and achieve behavior change or learning (p.319). The preparative stage of the class will involve eliciting the barriers to self-efficacy in handoff. These item then constitute the items against which self- efficacy can be measured. Using a tool developed by Faculty that rates degree of confidence from 0-100 that the student believes that they can carry out Nursing Hand –off efficaciously in view of the barriers in question (Bandura,2006,p.311). Students will rate their ability to communicate a head to toe assessment, communicate changes in status of patient and treatment, anticipate questions, and be organized in thought and delivery (Dent, 2012).
Self-efficacy, is a belief system that is rooted in the psychological theory of Human agency (Bandura, 2006, p.309). Bandura holds that the importance of theory is to effect change in human behavior. In order to produce change or learning, the way to build self-efficacy should be utilized in teaching Learners to provide them relevant experiences. Learners are not uniform in their appreciation and internalization of new information
The visual learners will benefit from power point presentation of hand off processes and components of hand-off with auditory reinforcement for the auditory learners. Hand-outs created by the Faculty on the materials used in the power point will enable kinesthetic learners to be involved in Learning through writing and interacting with the material. Role playing will be utilized with case studies of Hand-off scenarios with students observing and participating in debriefing classmates after role play. This modality will be effective for the three groups of learners progressing from simple to more complex learning processes (Billing & Halstead, 2012, p.178).
Strategies to Assess Learning
A performance assessment or evaluation is a way to determine whether a student has met the expectations or goals of the program. A performance assessment is useful when proof that a certain skill is able to be demonstrated or performed against a set of criteria. In the objectives given, self- efficacy in hands off reporting is the focus. Several methods of instruction have been introduced through various styles of teaching, being mindful of the auditory learner, the visual learner and the kinesthetic learner. Emphasis have been in place to encourage self- efficacy in hands off reporting. As a tool of measurement, performance assessment will be utilized allowing the student to demonstrate the skills necessary for effectiveness in self efficacy in hands off reporting.
Bandura, A. (2006).Self Efficacy Beliefs of Adolescents. Online Book. Information Age
Publishing. Retrieved from http://www.uky.edu/~eushe2/Bandura/BanduraGuide2006.pdf Accessed 3/8/2015
Billings, D.M. & Halstead, J.A. (2012).Teaching in Nursing. (4th ed,) St. Louis, MO: Elsevier
Dent, S. (2012, November 23). 5 Tips for a Great Hand-off Report. Retrieved from
www.scrubsmag.com/giving-a-good-report/ Accessed 3/9/2015.
How to assess students learning and performance? Retrieved from http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/assessment/assesslearning/index.html accessed on 3/9/2015.
Prive, T. (2012, December 19) Top 10 Qualities That Make a Great Leader. Retrieved from
Sinclair, B., & Ferguson, K. (2009). Integrating simulated teaching/learning strategies in undergraduate nursing education. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 6(1), 1-11. doi:10.2202/1548-923X.1676